Firing Squads

Statistical Tests of Percent Differences Among Execution Actors

Firing Squad: Among Executioners, a near majority (48%) were OK with executions using firing squads. Among Hard Abstract Supporters, only 26% were OK with such executions. Among Soft Abstract Supporters, only 12% were OK with this method of execution. According to the Chi-Square test, these differences are statistically significant. The Sig. value is less than .05. With a Phi coefficient of .29 and an Eta Squared of .08, the effect size of approving this method of execution exerts slightly less than a medium effect on execution roles (intended actions).


When Soft Abstract Supporters and Hard Abstract Supporters were analyzed separately using the Chi-Square test with correction for continuity (2 X 2 table), the difference between them was also statistically significant. With a Phi coefficient of .18 and an Eta Squared of .03, the effect size of approving this method of execution exerts slightly more than a small effect on execution roles (intended actions).


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